Формирование исполнительных функций в дошкольном возрасте

Авторы

  • Елена Сергеевна Щипина Российский государственный педагогический университет им. А. И. Герцена
  • Кристина Валерьевна Сиверцева Российский государственный педагогический университет им. А. И. Герцена

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2687-0223-2019-1-2-143-151

Ключевые слова:

исполнительные функции, тормозный контроль, рабочая память, когнитивная гибкость, дошкольный возраст, внимание, самоконтроль, модель психического, агрессия, агрессивность

Аннотация

Исполнительные функции (executive function) позволяют человеку творчески подходить к решению задач, изменять установки и убеждения, понимать и принимать точку зрения другого человека, останавливать импульсивное движение и преодолевать автоматическую реакцию на стимул, противостоять искушениям и концентрировать внимание на выполняемой задаче, игнорируя отвлекающие факторы. Исполнительные функции — это общий термин для когнитивных процессов, которые регулируют, контролируют и управляют другими когнитивными процессами, необходимыми для изменения поведения. Выделяют три компонента исполнительных функций: тормозный контроль (отвечает за подавление реакции, самоконтроль, сопротивление искушениям и импульсивному действию); рабочая память и когнитивная гибкость (дает возможность рассматривать объект с разных точек зрения, быстро и гибко адаптируясь к изменившимся обстоятельствам).

В статье рассматриваются исследования, касающиеся развития исполнительных функций в дошкольном и младшем школьном возрасте, связи уровня развития исполнительных функций с академической успеваемостью, а также рассматривается роль семьи и показателей социального развития ребенка: сформированности модели психического и показателей демонстрации разных типов агрессивного поведения, проанализирована возможность тренировки и развития исполнительных функций у детей дошкольного возраста. Во второй части статьи приводятся данные эмпирических исследований по материалам современных зарубежных публикаций о связи исполнительных функций со сформированностью модели психического и демонстрацией агрессивного поведения. Рассмотрена связь дефицита исполнительных функций в раннем возрасте и высокого уровня агрессивности в более старшем. Подчеркивается роль рабочей памяти, тормозного контроля, когнитивной гибкости и внимания как факторов, предсказывающих разные виды демонстрируемой агрессии. Приведены данные исследований гендерной зависимости дефицита исполнительных функций и разных видов демонстрируемого агрессивного поведения. В контексте связи исполнительных функций с формированием модели психического приведены данные исследований, выделивших роль когнитивной гибкости в развитии у детей возможности понимать психическое состояние другого человека.

Библиографические ссылки

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

Белолуцкая, А. К., Веракса, А. Н., Алмазова, О. В. и др. (2018) Связь характеристик образовательной среды детского сада и уровня развития регуляторных функцийдошкольников, Психологическая наука и образование, т. 23, № 6, с. 85–96. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2018230608

Васильева, М. Ю., Коршина, Ю. Д., Курохтина, Е. В. и др. (2017) Исполнительные функции у детей раннего возраста, воспитывающихся в домах ребенка и семьях. Психологический журнал, т. 38, № 4, с. 62–75. DOI: 10.7868/S0205959217040067

Виленская, Г. А. (2016) Исполнительные функции: природа и развитие. Психологический журнал, т. 37, № 4, с. 21–31.

Николаева, Е. И., Вергунов, Е. Г. (2017) Что такое “executive functions” и их развитие в онтогенезе. Теоретическая и экспериментальная психология, т. 10, № 2, с. 62–81.

Собкин, В. С., Веракса, А. Н., Бухаленкова, Д. А. и др. (2017) Роль социально-демографических факторов и родительской позиции в развитии ребенка-дошкольника. Психологическая наука и образование, т. 22, № 2, с. 5–16. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2017220201

Ahmed, S. F., Tang, S., Waters, N. E., Davis-Kean, P. (2019) Executive function and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations from early childhood to adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 446–458. DOI: 10.1037/edu0000296

Austin, G., Groppe, К., Elsner, В. (2014) The reciprocal relationship between executive function and theory of mind in middle childhood: A 1-year longitudinal perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, article 655. PMID: 25009527. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00655

Berthelsen, D., Hayes, N., White, S. L. J., Williams, K. E. (2017) Executive function in adolescence: Associations with child and family risk factors and self-regulation in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 903. PMID: 28626440. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00903

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., Naglieri, J. A. (2011) Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 327–336. PMID: 21845021. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007

Bock, A. M., Gallaway, K. C., Hund, A. M. (2015) Specifying links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood: Cognitive flexibility predicts social understanding. Faculty Publications — Psychology. [Online]. Available at: https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=fppsych (accessed 07.12.2019).

Dekker, M. C., Ziermans, T. B., Spruijt, A. M., Swaab, H. (2017) Cognitive, parent and teacher rating measures of executive functioning: Shared and unique influences on school achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 48. PMID: 28194121. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00048

Devine, R. T., Bignardi, G., Hughes, C. (2016) Executive function mediates the relations between parental behaviors and children’s early academic ability. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 15, article 1902. PMID: 28018253. DOI: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2016.01902

Dimond, A. (2013) Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 64, pp. 135–168. PMID: 23020641. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750

Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., Munro, S. (2007) Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, vol. 318, no. 5855, pp. 1387–1388. PMID: 18048670. DOI: 10.1126/science.1151148

Diamond, A., Lee, K. (2011) Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4–12 years old. Science, vol. 333, no. 6045, pp. 959–964. PMID: 21852486. DOI: 10.1126/science.1204529

Goosh, D., Thompson, P., Nash, H. M. et al. (2015) The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 180–187. PMID: 26307609. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12458

Granvald, V., Marciszko, C. (2016) Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood. Child Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 537–555. PMID: 25833167. DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2015.1018152

Grimstad, K. (2014) Do executive functions predict change in forms of aggression in middle childhood? Master thesis. Trondheim, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Publ., 30 p. [Online]. Available at: http://hdl. handle.net/11250/282671 (accessed 07.12.2019).

Hughes, C., Ensor, R. (2011) Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 663–676. PMID: 20673580. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.06.005

Lillard, A. S. (2012) Preschool children’s development in classic Montessori, supplemented Montessori, and conventional programs. Journal of School Psychology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 379–401. PMID: 22656079. DOI: 10.1016/j. jsp.2012.01.001

Moore, J. (2016) Childhood aggression and executive functioning: Variations across boys and girls. Master thesis. Vancouver, University of British Columbia, 86 p. [Online]. Available at: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ ubctheses/24/items/1.0308663 (accessed 07.08.2019).

Mulder, H., Verhagen, J., Van der Ven, S. H. G. et al. (2017) Early executive function at age two predicts emergent mathematics and literacy at age five. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 1706. PMID: 29075209. DOI: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2017.01706

O’Toole, S. E., Monks, C. P., Tsermentseli, S. (2017) Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of aggressive and prosocial behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood. Social Development, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 907–920. DOI: 10.1111/sode.12231

O’Toole, S. E., Tsermentseli, S., Humayun, S., Monks, C. P. (2019) Cool and hot executive functions at 5 years old as predictors of physical and relational aggression between 5 and 6 years old. International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 157–165. DOI: 10.1177/0165025418798498

Ribner, A. D., Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Family Life Project Key Investigators (2017) Executive function buffers the association between early math and later academic skills. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 869. PMID: 28611712. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00869

Rohlf, H. L., Holl, A. K., Kirsch F. et al. (2018) Longitudinal links between executive function, anger, and aggression in middle childhood. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 12, article 27. DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00027

Rostami, R., Mojtahedy, S. H., Heidari, Z. et al. (2017) Investigation of cognitive-behavioral play therapy effectiveness on cognitive functions in aggressive children. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Researches, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 186–191. DOI: 10.4103/jepr.jepr_18_16

Solomon, T., Plamondon, A., O’Hara, A. et al. (2018) A cluster randomized-controlled trial of the impact of the tools of the mind curriculum on self-regulation in canadian preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 2366. PMID: 29403411. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02366

Stein, M., Auerswald, M., Eberbach, M. (2017) Relationships between motor and executive functions and the effect of an acute coordinative intervention on executive functions in kindergartners. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 859. PMID: 28611709. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00859

Wiebe, S. A., Sheffield, T., Mize Nelson, J. M. et al. (2011) The structure of executive function in 3-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 436–452. PMID: 20884004, DOI: 10.1016/j. jecp.2010.08.008

Zelazo, P. D., Forston, J. L., Masten, A. S., Carlson, S. M. (2018) Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 9, article 208. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00208

REFERENCES

Ahmed, S. F., Tang, S., Waters, N. E., Davis-Kean, P. (2019) Executive function and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations from early childhood to adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 446–458. DOI: 10.1037/edu0000296 (In English)

Austin, G., Groppe, К., Elsner, В. (2014) The reciprocal relationship between executive function and theory of mind in middle childhood: A 1-year longitudinal perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, article 655. PMID: 25009527. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00655 (In English)

Belolutskaya, A. K., Veraksa, A. N., Almazova, O. V. et al. (2018) Svyaz’ kharakteristik obrazovatel’noj sredy detskogo sada i urovnya razvitiya regulyatornykh funktsij doshkol’nikov [Association between educational environment in kindergarten and executive functions in preschool age]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie — Psychological Science and Education, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 85–96. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2018230608 (In Russian)

Berthelsen, D., Hayes, N., White, S. L. J., Williams, K. E. (2017) Executive function in adolescence: Associations with child and family risk factors and self-regulation in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 903. PMID: 28626440. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00903 (In English)

Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., Naglieri, J. A. (2011) Relations between executive function and academic achievement from ages 5 to 17 in a large, representative national sample. Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 327–336. PMID: 21845021. DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.01.007 (In English)

Bock, A. M., Gallaway, K. C., Hund, A. M. (2015) Specifying links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood: Cognitive flexibility predicts social understanding. Faculty Publications — Psychology. [Online]. Available at: https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=fppsych (accessed 07.12.2019) (In English)

Dekker, M. C., Ziermans, T. B., Spruijt, A. M., Swaab, H. (2017) Cognitive, parent and teacher rating measures of executive functioning: Shared and unique influences on school achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 48. PMID: 28194121. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00048 (In English)

Devine, R. T., Bignardi, G., Hughes, C. (2016) Executive function mediates the relations between parental behaviors and children’s early academic ability. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 15, article 1902. PMID: 28018253. DOI: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2016.01902 (In English)

Dimond, A. (2013) Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 64, pp. 135–168. PMID: 23020641. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750 (In English)

Diamond, A., Barnett, W. S., Thomas, J., Munro, S. (2007) Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, vol. 318, no. 5855, pp. 1387–1388. PMID: 18048670. DOI: 10.1126/science.1151148 (In English)

Diamond, A., Lee, K. (2011) Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4–12 years old. Science, vol. 333, no. 6045, pp. 959–964. PMID: 21852486. DOI: 10.1126/science.1204529 (In English)

Goosh, D., Thompson, P., Nash, H. M. et al. (2016) The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 180–187. PMID: 26307609. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12458 (In English)

Granvald, V., Marciszko, C. (2016) Relations between key executive functions and aggression in childhood. Child Neuropsychology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 537–555. PMID: 25833167. DOI: 10.1080/09297049.2015.1018152 (In English)

Grimstad, K. (2014) Do executive functions predict change in forms of aggression in middle childhood? Master thesis. Trondheim, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Publ., 30 p. [Online]. Available at: http://hdl. handle.net/11250/282671 (accessed 07.12.2019). (In English)

Hughes, C., Ensor, R. (2011) Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 663–676. PMID: 20673580. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.06.005 (In English)

Lillard, A. S. (2012) Preschool children’s development in classic Montessori, supplemented Montessori, and conventional programs. Journal of School Psychology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 379–401. PMID: 22656079. DOI: 10.1016/j. jsp.2012.01.001 (In English)

Moore, J. (2016) Childhood aggression and executive functioning: Variations across boys and girls. Master thesis. Vancouver, University of British Columbia, 86 p. [Online]. Available at: https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ ubctheses/24/items/1.0308663 (accessed 07.08.2019). (In English)

Mulder, H., Verhagen, J., Van der Ven, S. H. G. et al. (2017) Early executive function at age two predicts emergent mathematics and literacy at age five. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 1706. PMID: 29075209. DOI: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2017.01706 (In English)

Nikolaeva, E. I., Vergunov, E. G. (2017) Chto takoe “executive functions” i ikh razvitie v ontogeneze [Executive functions and their development in ontogenesis]. Teoreticheskaya i eksperimental’naya psikhologiya — Theoretical and Experimental Psychology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 62–81. (In Russian)

O’Toole, S. E., Monks, C. P., Tsermentseli, S. (2017) Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of aggressive and prosocial behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood. Social Development, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 907–920. DOI: 10.1111/sode.12231 (In English)

O’Toole, S. E., Tsermentseli, S., Humayun, S., Monks, C. P. (2019) Cool and hot executive functions at 5 years old as predictors of physical and relational aggression between 5 and 6 years old. International Journal of Behavioral Development, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 157–165. DOI: 10.1177/0165025418798498 (In English)

Ribner, A. D., Willoughby, M. T., Blair, C. B., Family Life Project Key Investigators (2017) Executive function buffers the association between early math and later academic skills. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 869. PMID: 28611712. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00869 (In English)

Rohlf, H. L., Holl, A. K., Kirsch, F. et al. (2018) Longitudinal links between executive function, anger, and aggression in middle childhood. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 12, article 27. DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00027 (In English)

Rostami, R., Mojtahedy, S. H., Heidari, Z. et al. (2017) Investigation of cognitive-behavioral play therapy effectiveness on cognitive functions in aggressive children. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Researches, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 186–191. DOI: 10.4103/jepr.jepr_18_16 (In English)

Sobkin, V. S., Veraksa, A. N., Bukhalenkova, D. A. et al. (2017) Rol’ sotsial’no-demograficheskikh faktorov i roditel’skoj pozitsii v razvitii rebenka-doshkol’nika [Role of social demographic factors and parental position in the development of preschool child]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie — Psychological Science and Education, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 5–16. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2017220201 (In Russian)

Solomon, T., Plamondon, A., O’Hara, A. et al. (2018) A cluster randomized-controlled trial of the impact of the tools of the mind curriculum on self-regulation in canadian preschoolers. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 2366. PMID: 29403411. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02366 (In English)

Stein, M., Auerswald, M., Eberbach, M. (2017) Relationships between motor and executive functions and the effect of an acute coordinative intervention on executive functions in kindergartners. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 8, article 859. PMID: 28611709. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00859 (In English)

Vasil’eva, M. Yu., Korshina, Yu. D., Kurokhtina, E. V. et al. (2017) Ispolnitel’nye funktsii u detej rannego vozrasta, vospityvayushchikhsya v domakh rebenka i sem’yakh [Executive functioning in young children living in baby homes and biological families]. Psikhologicheskij zhurnal — Psychological Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 62–75. DOI: 10.7868/S0205959217040067 (In Russian)

Vilenskaya, G. A. (2016) Ispolnitel’nye funktsii: priroda i razvitie [Executive functions: Nature and development]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 21–31. (In Russian)

Wiebe, S. A., Sheffield, T., Mize Nelson, J. M. et al. (2011) The structure of executive function in 3-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 436–452. PMID: 20884004. DOI: 10.1016/j. jecp.2010.08.008 (In English)

Zelazo, P. D., Forston, J. L., Masten, A. S., Carlson, S. M. (2018) Mindfulness plus reflection training: Effects on executive function in early childhood. Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 9, article 208. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00208 (In English)

Опубликован

2019-10-21

Выпуск

Раздел

Новости научной жизни